Gross rent multiplier

The gross rent multiplier (GRM) is a must-have tool for real estate investors. GRM is a quick and accurate formula for estimating investment property value. This blog explains GRM, how it works, and why real estate investors need it.

What is gross rent multiplier (GRM)?

The gross rent multiplier (GRM) is a real estate investment tool that investors use to estimate the fair market value of a rental property. It is a ratio that shows the relationship between property price-to-annual gross rental revenue.

Gross rent multiplier formula

GRM= Property Price/Annual Gross Rental Income

The GRM computation lets investors assess rental properties based on anticipated revenue rather than purchase price. The GRM values property primarily based on rental revenue.


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How to calculate the gross rent multiplier (step-by-step)?

Here are the steps for gross rent multiplier calculation for an income-producing property -

Step 1 - Determine the gross annual rental income

The gross rent multiplier calculation starts with the property’s gross annual rental income (GARI). This is the total amount of rental income that the property generates in a year without deducting any expenses. For yearly GARI, multiply monthly rental income by 12.

Gross annual rental income = Monthly rental income x 12

Step 2: Determine the gross rent multiplier

Next, calculate gross rent multiplier (GRM). Dividing the property’s fair market value by its gross yearly rent yields the GRM.

If both parties understood the property’s condition and market worth, a willing buyer would pay a willing seller the fair market value. Here is the gross rent multiplier formula .

Gross Rent Multiplier = Property’s Fair Market Value / Gross Annual Rent

Step 3: Analyze the results

The GRM may be used to assess investment opportunity profitability.

A lower GRM indicates a more profitable investment opportunity, as it means that the property generates a higher amount of rental income relative to its fair market value.

Higher GRMs suggest lower investment returns.

The gross rent multiplier calculator formula only considers gross rental revenue and not running expenses or other property costs.

Thus, you must calculate the property’s net operating income (NOI) by subtracting normal operating expenditures from gross rental income. The NOI can provide a more accurate measure of the property’s profitability.

Net Operating income = Gross Rental Income - Operating Expenses

How does the gross rent multiplier work?

To calculate GRM, divide property price by annual gross rental revenue.

For example

Consider a $500,000 rental property with a $50,000 gross yearly rent. The GRM is 10 ($500,000/$50,000).

Once you have the GRM, you can use it to estimate the fair market value of the rental property. To do this, multiply the GRM by the annual gross rental income.

The estimated fair market value of a rental property is $500,000 if the GRM is 10 and the gross yearly rent is $50,000.

What is a good gross rent multiplier?

A good gross rent multiplier (GRM) depends on the location, property type, and market circumstances. Target a GRM between 4 and 7.

A lower GRM means that the property provides more rental revenue than its fair market value, which is good.

However, what is considered a good GRM can differ depending on the local real estate market. In a hot real estate market with rising home values, a greater GRM may be a favourable investment.

Most markets prefer a GRM of 8 or less. Before deciding, analyse the property’s net operating income (NOI), operational expenditures, and local market trends.

Ultimately, a good GRM fits within your investment goals and provides a profitable return on your investment.

Why do real estate investors need a Gross rent multiplier?

The GRM estimates investment property value quickly and easily. The GRM lets investors evaluate rental properties based on gross rental revenue. This Gross rent multiplier helps investors find suitable investment properties quickly.

GRM calculations show property investors the property’s prospective cash flow. Investors can estimate the property’s net operating income (NOI), or gross rental income less operating expenditures, using the GRM.

If the NOI is high enough, the property can pay its running costs and give a return on investment.

What are the limitations of GRM?

The GRM helps real estate investors, but it has some limits. Property taxes, repairs, upkeep, and management costs are not included in the GRM calculation. Thus, it estimates the property’s worth using rental revenue alone.

The GRM ignores real estate market volatility and property location and condition. Thus, it should not be the sole criterion for assessing an investment property.

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How to improve the gross rent multiplier?

Improving the GRM means increasing the rental income of a property. Here are a few ways to improve the GRM:

Increase rental income

One way to improve the GRM is to increase the property’s rental income. This can be done by increasing the rent for current tenants or finding new tenants willing to pay a higher rent.

You can also consider adding amenities to the property, such as laundry facilities or a fitness centre, which can justify higher rents.

Decrease vacancy rates

Property rental revenue and GRM are affected by vacancy rates. Reducing vacancies increases rental income and GRM.

Marketing, tenant incentives, and property maintenance may achieve this.

Reduce operating expenses

Reducing property running expenditures is another strategy to boost GRM. Negotiating better vendor and supplier arrangements, boosting energy efficiency, and lowering maintenance expenses can achieve this.

Lowering operational expenditures boosts property net operating income (NOI) and GRM.

Increase property value

Finally, increasing property value can boost GRM. Renovating the kitchen, bathroom, flooring, or landscaping can achieve this.

These renovations may boost rental revenue and property value.

Gross rent multiplier vs cap rate

Real estate investors use the gross rent multiplier (GRM) and capitalization rate (cap rate) to assess a property’s profitability. However, they consider different revenue and costs.

Dividing the property’s fair market value by its gross yearly rental revenue yields the GRM. It quickly estimates a property’s worth based on rental revenue without considering running expenditures.

Single-family residences and modest multi-unit structures employ the GRM most often.

Divide the property’s net operating income (NOI) by its fair market value to determine the cap rate. The NOI includes property taxes, insurance, maintenance, management fees, and any other income streams except rental income.

Commercial real estate, including office buildings, retail centres, and apartment complexes, utilise the cap rate to assess property profitability better.

Both the GRM and cap rate can reveal a property’s potential profitability, but each has its pros and cons depending on the property and investment plan.

The cap rate is preferable for commercial properties, and the GRM is for quick residential property estimations. When investing in real estate, consider both measures, local market trends, and investment goals.


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How to use GRM in real estate investments

Here are a few ways to use GRM in real estate investments:

Estimate property value

GRM is often used to evaluate the fair market value of a possible investment property. Divide the property’s fair market value by its gross yearly rental revenue to determine how many years it would take for the rental income to pay for the property.

Compare properties

GRM may compare several investment properties’ profitability. Calculate the GRM for each property to compare rental revenue to fair market value.

The lower GRM property yields more rental revenue proportional to its value, making it more lucrative.

Set rent rates

GRM can also determine property rents. Calculating a property’s GRM lets you estimate the rental revenue needed to cover its cost. This helps you establish the minimum rent rates required for investment profitability.

Evaluate investment opportunities

GRM can quickly screen investment ideas. You may easily eliminate unprofitable assets by selecting a target GRM depending on your investing goals.

The GRM is only one instrument for real estate investors. It gives a rapid assessment of a property’s potential profitability, but it doesn’t account for all real estate investing expenses and risks.

Thus, while investing in real estate, net operating income, cash flow, property management, local market trends, and investment goals should be considered.

How to project ROI with GRM

Here are the steps to project ROI with GRM:

Calculate gross rental income

Calculate the property’s gross rental revenue first. The annual gross rental revenue is calculated by multiplying the monthly rent by the number of units and then by 12.

Determine the GRM

Divide the property’s market value by the gross rental revenue to calculate the GRM.

Estimate operating expenses

Estimate property taxes, insurance, upkeep, repairs, and management costs. Net operating income (NOI) is gross rental income less expected operating expenditures.

Estimate cap rate

Another technique for real estate ROI projections is the cap rate. Divide NOI by property market value to determine the cap rate.

Project ROI

Use GRM to calculate NOI by subtracting expected operating expenditures from gross rental income. To calculate ROI as a percentage, divide NOI by property market value and multiply by 100.

If the NOI is $35,000 and the property is worth $500,000, the ROI is 7%.


In conclusion, the gross rent multiplier (GRM) is a powerful tool that real estate investors must-have in their investment checklist. It helps to estimate investment property value accurately and quickly, based on the relationship between property price-to-annual gross rental revenue.

A lower GRM indicates a more profitable investment opportunity, while a higher GRM suggests lower investment returns. While the GRM formula only considers gross rental revenue, investors should also calculate net operating income (NOI) to get a more accurate measure of the property’s profitability.

Finally, while the GRM has its limitations, investors can improve the GRM by increasing rental income, reducing vacancies, and lowering operating expenses.


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